There are a number of safety rules and techniques that should be adhered to when winching a vehicle, owing to the potential risk to human life or damage to property. Please note that a proper 4×4 Advanced Recovery course (Land Rover School/Continental Academy), is recommended before attempting this yourself. Print out this list, laminate it and keep in a safe place in your 4×4.

    1. Always wear heavy-duty protective gloves when operating a winch.
       
    2. All spectators or passengers should remain well away from the entire operation. A cable that breaks under strain can lash back and sever a leg or smash through a vehicle’s windscreen.
       
    3. Never step over a connected cable, even when slack. Once a cable is attached to a tree or another vehicle, it is viewed as live under all circumstances.
       
    4. When using a tree as an anchor, ensure a proper tree trunk protector is used to avoid damage.
       
    5. Remember to keep the cable as low as possible when connecting it, to prevent the anchor (tree) from being pulled down.
       
    6. Never wrap a winching cable around any anchor and onto itself. This will permanently damage the cable.
       
    7. If the remote control of the winch is plugged in, stay well clear of the drum, cable and fairlead area.
       
    8. Look for the drum rotation decal. This is the only way the cable must spool off the drum. Failing which, the automatic brake will not function in the opposite direction.
       
    9. Never use a winch as a tow rope. The cable is not made to handle sudden jerks and may damage itself or the drum of the winch.
       
    10. When winching, try to unspool as much of the cable as possible. Leaving too many cable winds on the drum, before winching, can actually cause the top layers of the cable to damage the bottom layers. If the distance between the vehicle and the anchor point (or the stuck vehicle and the recovery vehicle) is too short, use a snatch block to half the distance.
       winching
    11. Snatch blocks will allow you to double the effective pulling power of the winch. If need be, connect a snatch block with a D-shackle to a tree trunk protector and loop back the cable to the vehicle itself.
       
    12. The winch’s effective pulling power decreases with each successive layer on the drum. Thus, the first layer of cable on the drum will be the most powerful pulling strength. However, never winch with less than five wraps of cable around the drum. Cable failure may result otherwise.
       
    13. Always make certain the cable is reeling in as straight as possible. If necessary, stop the operation, unwind some cable, and re-engage the winch to ensure the cable is spooling around the drum evenly and tightly. Remember, the top cable layers will otherwise be drawn into the bottom layers and create a bind.
       
    14. Put a blanket, jacket or heavy sack on the middle of the cable to ensure that if it snaps, it will act as a ‘parachute’ to slow down the recoiling cable. Some 4×4 drivers actually raise the bonnet as well, to protect the windscreen in the event of cable failure.
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  1. Make sure that you know the maximum load rating of your winch. Never exceed this rating. Once again, use a snatch block to reduce the burden on the winch, if necessary, by almost 50%.
     
  2. Never allow the cable to slide through your hands and use the switch to take up cable slack intermittently to avoid shock loads on the drum and cable.
     
  3. When a recovery vehicle is used to extract a stuck vehicle, ensure that the handbrake is up and the wheels are properly blocked with stones or rocks. The gearbox should be in neutral and the normal foot brake may be used to assist in anchoring the vehicle.
     
  4. When winching, the stuck vehicle may assist itself by selecting an appropriate gear (low range, third). Ensure that the vehicle does not overtake the winch cable, as this would allow the slack cable to be reeled in onto the drum or the vehicle’s wheels to pass over the cable.
     
  5. When the winch hook is within 1.5 metres of the drum or fairlead, release the remote-control switch and stop the winch. At this point, intermittent, small uptakes may be used to get the hook in all the way. Do not over-tighten the cable and always keep your hands clear!
     
  6. Always ensure that the cable is inspected after use. If any fraying or damage has occurred, do not hesitate to replace the entire cable.
     
  7. Sometimes it may be necessary to re-spool the cable with zero load on it. The correct method to use is to hold the remote in your one hand and the winch cable in the other and to start as far away from the vehicle as your remote control would allow you. Start the winch with the remote and walk the cable in towards the drum for a metre or two. Now stop the remote and repeat the entire procedure. Remember to stop the process when you are within 1.5 metres from the fairlead.